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Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

Expanding Opportunities and Reducing Barriers to Work: Final Summary Report (Evaluation of USDA's SNAP Employment and Training Pilots)

Section 4022 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 authorized and funded the SNAP employment and training pilots and the evaluation. The final summary report presents findings drawn from the 10 pilot-specific final evaluation reports. The pilot-specific final reports and issue briefs on lessons from the pilots on administering and delivering services in SNAP E&T programs are also available.

Resource | Research | Program Access

Calculating the SNAP Program Access Index: A Step-By-Step Guide

The Program Access Index (PAI) is one of the measures FNS uses to reward states for high performance in the administration of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Performance awards were authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (also known as the 2002 Farm Bill). The PAI is designed to indicate the degree to which low-income people have access to SNAP benefits. The purpose of this step-by-step guide is to describe the calculation of the Program Access Index (PAI) in detail. It includes all of the data, adjustments, and calculations used in determining the PAI for every state.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations

Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC

The U.S. Department for Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's report “Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC reviews evidence on whether participation in WIC is associated with nutrition and health outcomes for women and children.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

The Use of State Administrative Data to Improve SNAP Eligibility Estimates: Findings and Recommendations from an Expert Panel

FNS has historically estimated the participation rate of SNAP by using Census data and samples of SNAP administrative data, but modeling SNAP eligibility using survey data has a number of challenges. In response, FNS, the Economic Research Service, and the Census Bureau sought potential solutions to these issues by linking Census survey data with monthly administrative records at the person level.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

Trends in USDA SNAP Participation Rates: FY 2016-19

This report is the latest in a series on SNAP participation rates, which estimate the proportion of people eligible for benefits under federal income and asset rules to those who actually participate in the program. This report presents rates for FY 2019, comparing them to rates for FY 2016-19 and showing participation rates by household characteristics.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

USDA Community Eligibility Provision Characteristics Study, SY 2016-17

This Community Eligibility Provision Characteristics study is the first comprehensive study since CEP became available nationwide in SY 2014-15. The study was designed to provide USDA with information about the impact of CEP and includes both an implementation and impact component.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

USDA Direct Certification With Medicaid for Free and Reduced-Price Meals Demonstration, SY 2019-20

This report examines the impact of using Medicaid data to directly certify students for free and reduced-price school meals in the NSLP and SBP in fifteen states in school year 2019-20. It assesses outcomes related to certification, participation, federal reimbursement, and state administrative costs in SY 2019-20 and over the course of the demonstration.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

Results of FNS-Administered School Food Authority Survey on Supply Chain Disruption

The School Food Authority Survey on Supply Chain Disruptions was administered by FNS from November 8th through December 13th through a 20-minute online questionnaire. The survey was sent to all SFAs operating child nutrition programs to gather information on the scope of the supply chain disruptions and school meal operations during school year 2021-22.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

Best Practices in the SNAP Employment and Training Program: 2016–2020

This study is the second in a series of reviews of effective employment and training (E&T) program components and practices. The study included a review of research focusing on SNAP E&T and other public workforce programs published from 2016 to 2020. Particular attention was given to recent changes to the SNAP E&T program, new referral and retention strategies, and promising work-based learning interventions, like apprenticeships.

Resource | Research | General/Other

National and State Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and Program Reach in 2019

This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2019 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category. The report also provides estimates by region, state, U.S. territory and race and ethnicity.

In March 2022, the report volumes were updated with improved national-level standard errors and margins of errors in some report and appendix tables. None of the point estimates for the number of eligible individuals or coverage rates required revision; only some standard errors and margins of error were revised.