Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Reaching Those in Need: State Food Stamp Participation Rates in 2000

This document presents estimates of food stamp participation rates for States as of September 2000. These estimates can be used to assess recent program performance and focus efforts to improve performance.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Elderly Participation and the Minimum Benefit

Many elderly individuals eligible for food stamps do not participate. While there are many possible reasons, one commonly offered explanation is that benefits are often too small to justify the effort needed to apply. This analysis suggests that most elderly are eligible for fairly substantial food stamp benefits, although a significant number are eligible only for a small benefit.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Findings from the First Year of Implementation

Participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) by children from low-income households continues to be less than their participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). There is concern that children might be coming to school without eating breakfast and still not be participating in the SBP for a variety of reasons, including a perceived stigma associating school breakfast participation with poverty. The aim of this pilot is to study the impact of the availability of universal-free school breakfast on breakfast participation and measures related to students’ nutritional status and academic performance. This pilot is not intended to evaluate the current SBP or the value of consuming breakfast.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
The Characteristics of Native American WIC Participants, On and Off Reservations

This report describes Native American participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) based on data collected by the biennial WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Studies in 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998. The report presents information on the geographic distribution, demographic characteristics, health status, and public health concerns of low-income Native American women, infants, and children participating in the WIC Program on and off reservations; describes Native American Tribes and the role of tribal governments in administering WIC programs; compares the characteristics of Native American WIC enrollees with all WIC enrollees; and examines the health status of Native American WIC enrollees.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
National School Lunch Program Application/Verification Pilot Project: Report on First Year Experience

Twenty-two School Food Authorities (SFAs) across 16 States began testing pilot procedures in 2000-01 to determine and verify the eligibility of children for Free and Reduced Price (F/RP) school meals. Three pilot F/RP eligibility determination models are being tested over a three-year period. The three models are: Up-Front Documentation; Graduated Verification; Verify Direct Certification. This project responds to a growing concern on the part of the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) about program integrity issues associated with the current system by which SFAs determine eligibility for F/RP school meals. This report provides a description of these SFAs' experience during their first year under the pilot procedures (2000-01), drawing comparisons with the same SFAs' NSLP operations over a two-year pre-pilot baseline. Results are presented for each pilot group.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2000

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The WIC Program provides a combination of direct nutritional supplementation, nutrition education and counseling, and increased access to health care and social service providers for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women; infants; and children up to the age of five years. WIC seeks to improve fetal development and reduce the incidence of low birthweight, short gestation, and anemia through intervention during the prenatal period. This publication is the seventh report in the series of studies on WIC participants and program characteristics.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Dietary Risk Assessment in the WIC Program

This is a report of the National Academies' Institute of Medicine (Food and Nutrition Board), published here by permission. This report seeks to evaluate the use of various dietary assessment tools and to make recommendations for their use in identifying individuals who are at dietary risk.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Trends in Food Stamp Program Participation Rates: 1994 to 2000

This report is the latest in a series on trends in Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation rates, based on the Current Population Survey. This report focuses on changes in rates from 1994 to 2000.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Reaching Those in Need: Food Stamp Participation Rates in the States in 1999

This is the fourth report in a series of publications presenting estimates of the percentage of eligible persons, by State, who participate in the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This issue presents food stamp participation rates for States in September 1999 and the change between September 1994 and September 1999. This information can be used to assess recent trends in program performance and focus efforts for improvement. This report also presents revised estimates of FSP participation rates for States in September of 1994 to 1998. These estimates differ from those previously reported because of improvements in data and estimation methods.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
School Meals Initiative Implementation Study: Third Year Report

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP) are key components of a national policy designed to safeguard and promote the nutritional well-being of the Nation’s children. The programs are administered by the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operating through state agencies (SAs) that have agreements with the local school systems in their States. Despite the progress that has been achieved over the years in enhancing the quality of school meals, results of research conducted in the early 1990s indicated that school meals, on balance, were failing to meet certain key nutritional goals. In light of these findings, the USDA launched a far-reaching reform of the school meals programs, a reform aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The reform began in late 1993 with public hearings followed by a proposed rule in 1994 and a final rule in 1995. The several elements of this reform are collectively referred to as the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI). The status of this initiative, together with an examination of selected operational issues of these programs, are the principal subjects of this report.