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Resource | Research | Breastfeeding

WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2: Fifth Year Report

The WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (WIC ITFPS-2), also known as the “Feeding My Baby” study, is the only national study to capture data on caregivers and their children over the first 5 years of the child’s life after enrollment in WIC, regardless of their continued participation in the program. This report focuses on the dietary intake patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status of children during the fifth year of life. The report also examines associations between WIC participation and key diet and health-related outcomes.

Resource | Data

WIC Data Tables

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations

Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC

The U.S. Department for Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's report “Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC reviews evidence on whether participation in WIC is associated with nutrition and health outcomes for women and children.

Resource | Research, Analysis & Background

Peer Review

As required under the Office of Management and Budget's "Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review," FNS reviews its study and evaluation plans to determine whether any projects currently planned or underway meet the Bulletin's standards for "highly influential scientific assessments" or "influential scientific information."

Resource | Research | General/Other

National and State Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and Program Reach in 2019

This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2019 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category. The report also provides estimates by region, state, U.S. territory and race and ethnicity.

In March 2022, the report volumes were updated with improved national-level standard errors and margins of errors in some report and appendix tables. None of the point estimates for the number of eligible individuals or coverage rates required revision; only some standard errors and margins of error were revised.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2020

Since 1988, FNS has produced biennial reports on WIC participant and program characteristics (PC) for use in program monitoring and managing WIC information needs. The PC 2020 report summarizes demographic, income and health-related characteristics and behaviors of participants certified to receive WIC benefits in April 2020. As a response to COVID-19, the PC 2020 report also compares participant and program characteristics between participants certified to receive benefits in April 2020 and those certified to receive benefits in November 2020 in nine select state agencies.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

Changes in WIC Operations During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A First Look at the Impact of Federal Waivers

This preliminary report summarizes key changes, improvements, and challenges to WC operations as delivered under the physical presence and remote benefit issuance waivers during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings represent a first, high-level look at survey data collected from state and local WIC agencies to fulfill reporting requirements for waivers issued under the Families First Coronavirus Response Act.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

Third National Survey of WIC Participants

The National Survey of WIC Participants (NSWP) study series is designed to describe state and local agency characteristics, examine participants’ characteristics, assess participants’ experiences with WIC, and estimate improper payments resulting from certification errors in WIC. The study is conducted approximately every 10 years, and the current study is the third iteration (NSWP-III) in the series. 

Resource | Research | Report to Congress

Reviewing the Evidence for Maternal Health and WIC

This report addresses actions taken by the Food and Nutrition Service to comply with the Consolidated Appropriations Act 2021 (PL 116-260, HR 116-446), which directs USDA to conduct a review of existing evidence and develop a plan to explore how participation in WIC is associated with maternal mortality, with emphasis on the needs of disadvantaged communities of color.

Resource | Research | Nutrition Education

WIC Report - Indicators of Diet Quality, Nutrition and Health for Americans by Program Participation Status, 2011–16

This study primarily uses 2011–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to examine bivariate relationships between reported WIC participation and outcomes including diet quality, indicators of nutrition and health, food consumption patterns, and nutrient intakes among 1- to 4-year-old children. Most results presented in this report are unadjusted and descriptive only, and do not infer causality. They are intended to contribute to the evidence base needed to inform future research and, subsequently, WIC policy and practice.