Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
National Survey of WIC Participants

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). WIC was established in 1972 to counteract the negative effects of poverty and poor nutrition on prenatal and pediatric health. WIC provides a combination of direct nutritional supplementation, nutrition education and counseling, and increased access to health care and social service providers for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women; infants; and children up to age five. Since 1992, FNS has produced biennial reports on WIC participant and program characteristics based on the WIC Minimum Data Set (MDS) compiled from state management information systems. The 20 items included in the MDS are collected as part of ongoing WIC operations and consist primarily of in formation related to participant eligibility. This report presents findings from the National Survey of WIC Participants and Their Local Agencies (NSWP). The NSWP was fielded in spring of 1998 and collected information about WIC participants and their families, through interviews conducted in WIC service sites throughout the country. The NSWP was the first national survey of WIC enrollees since 1988. Over that ten-year period, the WIC program vastly expanded, with the number of enrollees growing from approximately 3.4 million in 1988 to over 8 million in 1998.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
Framework for Dietary Risk Assessment in the WIC Program

This is a report of the National Academies' Institute of Medicine (Food and Nutrition Board), published here by permission.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
The Prevalence of Overweight Among WIC Children

This study examines the trends in the prevalence of overweight among WIC children during the 1990s. The study is based on data collected by the biennial WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Studies (1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998). Overweight prevalence among WIC children is measured according to the revised growth charts, released by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in May 2000.WIC is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. This Federal program is administered by USDA and provides supplemental foods, nutrition education, and health care referrals to pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children up to age 5 who are income eligible and at nutritional risk. WIC regulations require anthropometric measurements (height or length, and weight) be taken and recorded as part of determining nutritional risk for all enrollees, and these data are regularly reported in the biennial WIC Participant and Program Characteristics Studies.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
WIC Vendor Management Study, 1998

The purpose of the study was to learn the extent to which retail grocers, defined as "vendors" in the WIC Program, authorized to provide food to WIC participants, were violating program rules and procedures, and to determine which programmatic and/or demographic variables could be associated with vendor violations.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study: Child Intervention

In 1994, FNS initiated the WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study. The demonstration had two components: a comparison of the effects of innovative and traditional WIC nutrition education for prenatal participants; and a study of the feasibility and effectiveness of providing nutrition education to preschool (three-and-four-year-old) WIC participants. The report summarized here describes the design and implementation of the child nutrition education demonstration and presents findings describing the effectiveness of the demonstration.

Resource | Research | Demonstrations
WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study: Final Report - Prenatal Intervention

The WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study was conducted by Abt Associates, Inc. for the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The study evaluated the effectiveness of three innovative approaches to nutrition education in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Two of these education innovations were designed for educating prenatal women; the third focused on nutrition education for 3- and 4-year-old WIC participants. This executive summary and report describe the evaluation and results of the educational interventions for prenatal women.