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Survey of USDA's SNAP E&T Program Case Management

Resource type
Research, Analysis & Background
Research type
Assessing/Improving Operations
Resource Materials
PDF Icon Summary (119.47 KB)
PDF Icon Final Report (3.93 MB)

With the passage of the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018 (known as the 2018 Farm Bill), states are now required to provide case management to all Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) program participants. Although some states have provided case management as part of their SNAP E&T programs for many years, others are now implementing it for the first time or enhancing their services in response to this requirement. States' case management and assessment practices have not been well documented.

The purpose of this study is to help the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) better understand how states are implementing the SNAP E&T case management requirement. To give FNS a comprehensive picture of SNAP E&T case management, the study had four objectives:

  1. Describe states' approaches to SNAP E&T case management.
  2. Describe states' responses to the new program requirement for case management.
  3. Provide a comprehensive picture of states' approaches to SNAP E&T assessment
  4. Document states' approaches to offering participant reimbursements.

To address these study objectives, the study team conducted (1) a survey of 53 state SNAP directors about their state's policies, guidance, and practice related to case management, assessment, and participant reimbursement and other support services and (2) four in-depth case studies to describe case management, assessment, and participant reimbursements in more detail in these locations.

This report summarizes the findings and highlights promising practices and lessons learned that can be used to support states as they work to provide case management services aligned with their participants' needs, available resources, and program priorities.

Key Findings
  • Almost all states require case managers to administer initial assessments to participants after referral to E&T, and most require case managers to use a specific tool.
  • States offer a variety of participant reimbursements to E&T participants, including transportation assistance, work clothing or work equipment, and fees associated with tests, licensing, or credentialing.
  • In response to the requirement for case management in the 2018 Farm Bill, two-thirds of states invested in staff training, and more than half added new E&T providers.
Page updated: November 21, 2023