Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
WIC Program and Participants Characteristics 1994

The 1994 study of WIC program and participant characteristics (PC94), like the 1992 study (PC92), is substantially different from earlier efforts to collect data on WIC participants. PC94 employs the prototype reporting system which was developed by FNS for the 1992 study and which routinizes the collection of participant information from State WIC agencies. Earlier FNS studies of the WIC Program in 1984 (PC84), 1988 (PC88), and 1990 (PC90) were based on nationally representative samples of WIC participants and programs. PC94, like PC92, contains information on a near-census of WIC participants in April 1994.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study

This study compares the nutrients provided in school meals and the nutrients consumed by students with several standards. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are the daily intake levels of essential nutrients that are adequate to meet the nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons. The RDA are used to plan school meals.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Effects of Food Stamp Cash-Out on Administrative Costs, Participation, and Food Retailers in San Diego

A fundamental issue in the design of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) is the form benefits should take. Advocates of the current coupon system argue that coupons are a direct and inexpensive way to ensure that food stamp benefits are used to purchase food. Coupon advocates contend that, despite some evidence of fraud and benefit diversion under the current system, food stamps are used largely to purchase food. In addition, they contend that coupons give household food budgets some measure of protection against other demands on limited household resources. Advocates of cashing out the FSP argue that the current system limits the food-purchasing choices of recipients and places a stigma on participation. Moreover, they cite the cumbersome nature and cost of coupon issuance, transaction, and redemption.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
The Effects of Cash-Out on Food Use of Food Stamp Participants: Results from Four Demonstrations

A fundamental issue in the design of the Food Stamp Program is the form the benefits take. From the inception of pilot programs in the early 1960s to the contemporary program, the vehicle of choice has been the food stamp coupon, a voucher that can be redeemed for food at authorized retailers. For nearly that same period analyses have considered the relative merits of cash--or, in practice, checks--as an alternative. Advocates of the current coupon system argue that coupons are a direct and inexpensive way to ensure that food stamp benefits are used to purchase food, that the unauthorized use of food stamps is relatively limited despite some evidence of fraud and benefit diversion, and that coupons provide some measure of protection to food budgets from other demands on limited household resources. Advocates of cash benefits argue that the current system limits the purchasing choices of participants; places a stigma on participation; does not prevent the diversion of benefits (as evidenced by the existence of illegal trafficking); and entails excessive costs for coupon production, issuance, transaction, and redemption.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations
Infant Mortality Among Medicaid Newborns in Five States: The Effects of Prenatal WIC Participation

This study is the analysis of the relationship between prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and infant mortality among Medicaid newborns.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: Third Year Report

The Child Nutrition Program Operations Study was designed to collect data from States and participating SF As through annual telephone surveys during School Years (SY) 1988-89, 1989-90, and 1990-91 and through on-site visits during SY 1989-90 and 1991-92, with specific information needs for each data collection effort defined by FNS staff.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
The Evaluation of the Alabama Food Stamp Cash-Out Demonstration

A fundamental issue in the design of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) is the form benefits should take. Advocates of the current coupon system argue that coupons are a direct and inexpensive way to ensure that food stamp benefits are used to purchase food; that, despite some evidence of fraud and benefit diversion under the current system, the unauthorized use of food stamps is relatively limited; and that coupons provide some measure of protection to food budgets from other demands on limited household resources. Advocates of replacing coupons with cash argue that the current system limits the food purchasing choices of participants, places a stigma on participation; and entails excessive costs for coupon issuance, transaction, and redemption.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: Second Year Report

To manage the Child Nutrition programs effectively, FNS collects and analyzes information from annual State-level management reports. However, because these State-level reports vary considerably in both format and content, FNS is unable to rely on this source for all of its ongoing information needs.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Child Nutrition Meal Cost Methodology Study

The study collected data on-site on food, labor, and other meal production costs for a five day period. A major goal was to test the feasibility of identifying meal production costs that were not charged to the SFA account (to obtain full costs) and directly allocating costs to different SFA activities.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations
Very Low Birthweight Among Medicaid Newborns in Five States: The Effects of Prenatal WIC Participation

This study is an analysis of very low birthweight among Medicaid newborns and the effect of prenatal WIC participation on the likelihood of very low birthweight.