Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
WIC Dynamics Study

WIC Dynamics is a study of the impact of participation growth associated with infant formula rebates, new regulatory and legislative requirements, economic factors occurred since 1988.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
School Lunch Eligible Non-Participants

The School Lunch Eligible Non-Participants Study, conducted for USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), was designed to determine "why children eligible to participate for free and reduced-price meals do not apply or participate" in school nutrition programs (P.L. 101-624).

Resource | Research | Cost Study
School Lunch and Breakfast Cost Study

The study examined the costs charged to SFAs (reported costs), as well as those costs incurred by the school district in support of SFA operations, but not charged to the SFA (unreported costs). Together, the reported costs and the unreported costs are the full cost of meal production.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
EFT Commercial Infrastructures and Implications for EBT

The report assesses the existing commercial infrastructure of on-line Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) in the context of multi-state, multi-program EBT. The findings are based on interviews of respondents involved with the EFT commercial infrastructure.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
The Evaluation of Maryland EBT Demonstration: Final Results

The Maryland demonstration was the first statewide roll-out of an electronic benefit transfer (EBT) system involving multiple programs on a single card. The goal was to confirm that a large- scale, multi-program EBT system is technically feasible and determine whether such a system can achieve cost-neutrality government-wide while maintaining high quality service for recipients. The test involved food stamps plus five cash-benefit programs: Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Bonus Child Support for AFDC Recipients, Disability Assistance Loan Program, Non-Public Assistance Child Support, and Public Assistance for Adults. All parts of Maryland, both urban and rural, were converted to EBT.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
The Impacts of Off-Line Electronic Benefits Transfer Demonstration

The objectives of the demonstration were to determine the technological feasibility of offline EBT; whether it would be accepted by stakeholder groups; and whether it would be cost-effective.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
WIC Program and Participants Characteristics 1994

The 1994 study of WIC program and participant characteristics (PC94), like the 1992 study (PC92), is substantially different from earlier efforts to collect data on WIC participants. PC94 employs the prototype reporting system which was developed by FNS for the 1992 study and which routinizes the collection of participant information from State WIC agencies. Earlier FNS studies of the WIC Program in 1984 (PC84), 1988 (PC88), and 1990 (PC90) were based on nationally representative samples of WIC participants and programs. PC94, like PC92, contains information on a near-census of WIC participants in April 1994.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study

This study compares the nutrients provided in school meals and the nutrients consumed by students with several standards. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are the daily intake levels of essential nutrients that are adequate to meet the nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons. The RDA are used to plan school meals.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Effects of Food Stamp Cash-Out on Administrative Costs, Participation, and Food Retailers in San Diego

A fundamental issue in the design of the Food Stamp Program (FSP) is the form benefits should take. Advocates of the current coupon system argue that coupons are a direct and inexpensive way to ensure that food stamp benefits are used to purchase food. Coupon advocates contend that, despite some evidence of fraud and benefit diversion under the current system, food stamps are used largely to purchase food. In addition, they contend that coupons give household food budgets some measure of protection against other demands on limited household resources. Advocates of cashing out the FSP argue that the current system limits the food-purchasing choices of recipients and places a stigma on participation. Moreover, they cite the cumbersome nature and cost of coupon issuance, transaction, and redemption.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
The Effects of Cash-Out on Food Use of Food Stamp Participants: Results from Four Demonstrations

A fundamental issue in the design of the Food Stamp Program is the form the benefits take. From the inception of pilot programs in the early 1960s to the contemporary program, the vehicle of choice has been the food stamp coupon, a voucher that can be redeemed for food at authorized retailers. For nearly that same period analyses have considered the relative merits of cash--or, in practice, checks--as an alternative. Advocates of the current coupon system argue that coupons are a direct and inexpensive way to ensure that food stamp benefits are used to purchase food, that the unauthorized use of food stamps is relatively limited despite some evidence of fraud and benefit diversion, and that coupons provide some measure of protection to food budgets from other demands on limited household resources. Advocates of cash benefits argue that the current system limits the purchasing choices of participants; places a stigma on participation; does not prevent the diversion of benefits (as evidenced by the existence of illegal trafficking); and entails excessive costs for coupon production, issuance, transaction, and redemption.