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Resource | Research | Breastfeeding

WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2: Fifth Year Report

The WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (WIC ITFPS-2), also known as the “Feeding My Baby” study, is the only national study to capture data on caregivers and their children over the first 5 years of the child’s life after enrollment in WIC, regardless of their continued participation in the program. This report focuses on the dietary intake patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status of children during the fifth year of life. The report also examines associations between WIC participation and key diet and health-related outcomes.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

The Use of State Administrative Data to Improve SNAP Eligibility Estimates: Findings and Recommendations from an Expert Panel

FNS has historically estimated the participation rate of SNAP by using Census data and samples of SNAP administrative data, but modeling SNAP eligibility using survey data has a number of challenges. In response, FNS, the Economic Research Service, and the Census Bureau sought potential solutions to these issues by linking Census survey data with monthly administrative records at the person level.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

Trends in USDA SNAP Participation Rates: FY 2016-2019

This report is the latest in a series on SNAP participation rates, which estimate the proportion of people eligible for benefits under federal income and asset rules to those who actually participate in the program. This report presents rates for FY 2019, comparing them to rates for FY 2016-19 and showing participation rates by household characteristics.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

USDA Community Eligibility Provision Characteristics Study, SY 2016-17

This Community Eligibility Provision Characteristics study is the first comprehensive study since CEP became available nationwide in SY 2014-15. The study was designed to provide USDA with information about the impact of CEP and includes both an implementation and impact component.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

USDA Direct Certification With Medicaid for Free and Reduced-Price Meals Demonstration, SY 2019-20

This report examines the impact of using Medicaid data to directly certify students for free and reduced-price school meals in the NSLP and SBP in fifteen states in school year 2019-20. It assesses outcomes related to certification, participation, federal reimbursement, and state administrative costs in SY 2019-20 and over the course of the demonstration.

Resource | Research | General/Other

National and State Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and Program Reach in 2019

This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2019 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category. The report also provides estimates by region, state, U.S. territory and race and ethnicity.

In March 2022, the report volumes were updated with improved national-level standard errors and margins of errors in some report and appendix tables. None of the point estimates for the number of eligible individuals or coverage rates required revision; only some standard errors and margins of error were revised.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

USDA Summer Meals Study

The Summer Meals Study provides a comprehensive, nationally representative assessment of the two summer meal programs operated by USDA: the Summer Food Service Program and the National School Lunch Program Seamless Summer Option. It is the first national study to simultaneously examine the facilitators and barriers to program participation among participating and nonparticipating families, sponsors, and sites. This study examines the characteristics of participating and nonparticipating children, including sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, reasons for participation or nonparticipation, and satisfaction with the meals served to children in the summer of 2018. 

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study

This study is the first nationally representative, comprehensive assessment of the school meal programs since the updated nutrition standards for school meals were phased in beginning School Year 2012-2013. A study methodology report that describes the study design, sampling and data collection and a summary report that provides a brief overview of the study and key findings from the various reports are also available.

Resource | Notices | Assessing/Improving Operations

Comment Request - School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study-II

This collection is a revision of a currently approved collection for the School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study-II. The purpose of SNMCS-II is to provide a comprehensive picture of school food service operations and the nutritional quality, cost, and acceptability of meals served in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates

The Impact of SNAP Able Bodied Adults Without Dependents (ABAWD) Time Limit Reinstatement in Nine States

This report examines the reinstatement of time limits on SNAP participation for able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs) following the Great Recession. This report focuses on how reinstatement of time limits impacted ABAWD employment, annual wages, and program participation. Methods include descriptive and regressive analysis of administrative data, analysis of linked SNAP-Unemployment Insurance data, sensitivity analysis of key findings, and interviews with regional SNAP directors.