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Resource | Research | Breastfeeding

National and State Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and Program Reach in 2020

These graphics, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, present 2020 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percentages of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category.

Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost

WIC Food Cost-Containment Practices Study

The WIC Food Cost-Containment Practices Study describes the voluntarily approaches state agencies used in 2018 to reduce food costs when selecting and authorizing WIC foods. This study is the second of its kind; the first was conducted by the USDA Economic Research Service in 2003. This report examines how six types of food cost-containment practices are associated with food costs and WIC participant satisfaction, benefit redemption, and food consumption in 12 state agencies. 

Resource | Research | Food Security

ERS - Household Food Security in the United States in 2021

This report presents statistics from the survey that cover household food security, food expenditures, and use of federal nutrition assistance programs in 2021.

Resource | Research | Food Security

USDA Nutrition Education Coordination Report to Congress, FY 2021

USDA's nutrition assistance programs touch the lives of one in four American consumers annually and the nutrition education efforts associated with select programs offer a powerful opportunity to promote food security and improve dietary quality among eligible individuals and families.

Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost

WIC Vendor Management Study: 2015 EBT Pilot

The WIC Vendor Management Study: 2015 Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) Pilot examined compliance with program requirements and rates of violations among WIC EBT vendors in 2015 and tested a method to identify and measure errors that contribute to improper payments in an EBT environment.

Resource | Research | Breastfeeding

WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study 2 (ITFPS-2): Fifth Year Report

The WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study 2 (WIC ITFPS-2)/ “Feeding My Baby” Study  is the only national study to capture data on caregivers and their children over the first 5 years of the child’s life after enrollment in WIC, regardless of their continued participation in the program. This report focuses on the dietary intake patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status of children during the fifth year of life. The report also examines associations between WIC participation and key diet and health-related outcomes.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations

Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC

The U.S. Department for Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's report “Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC reviews evidence on whether participation in WIC is associated with nutrition and health outcomes for women and children.

Resource | Data | Study & Evaluation Plan

Study & Evaluation Plans

FNS conducts a variety of studies, evaluations, and related activities that respond to the needs of policy makers and managers and help ensure that nutrition assistance programs achieve their goals effectively. These plans provide short descriptions of projects that have been or will be funded in each fiscal year.

Resource | Report | General/Other

Completed Peer Review Plans and Reports

List of FNS completed peer review plans and reports. 

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

Trends in USDA SNAP Participation Rates: FY 2016-2019

This report is the latest in a series on SNAP participation rates, which estimate the proportion of people eligible for benefits under federal income and asset rules to those who actually participate in the program. This report presents rates for FY 2019, comparing them to rates for FY 2016-19 and showing participation rates by household characteristics.