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Resource | Research | Report to Congress

Reviewing the Evidence for Maternal Health and WIC

This report addresses actions taken by the Food and Nutrition Service to comply with the Consolidated Appropriations Act 2021 (PL 116-260, HR 116-446), which directs USDA to conduct a review of existing evidence and develop a plan to explore how participation in WIC is associated with maternal mortality, with emphasis on the needs of disadvantaged communities of color.

Resource | Research | Nutrition Education

WIC Report - Indicators of Diet Quality, Nutrition and Health for Americans by Program Participation Status, 2011–16

This study primarily uses 2011–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to examine bivariate relationships between reported WIC participation and outcomes including diet quality, indicators of nutrition and health, food consumption patterns, and nutrient intakes among 1- to 4-year-old children. Most results presented in this report are unadjusted and descriptive only, and do not infer causality. They are intended to contribute to the evidence base needed to inform future research and, subsequently, WIC policy and practice.

Resource | Research | General/Other

National- and State-Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and WIC Program Reach in 2018 With Updated Estimates for 2016 and 2017

This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2018 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category. 

Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2018 Food Packages and Costs Report

​​This report supplements FNS administrative data on total food costs by estimating the average monthly food costs for each WIC participant category and food package type. It also estimates total pre- and post-rebate dollars spent on 18 major categories of WIC-eligible foods in FY 2018.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis

WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study 2: Fourth Year Report

The WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (WIC ITFPS-2), also known as the “Feeding My Baby" Study, is the only national study to capture data on caregivers and their children over the first 6 years of the child's life regardless of their continued participation in WIC. Overall, the study examines child-feeding practices, associations between WIC services and those practices, and the health and nutrition outcomes of children who received WIC around birth. This report, the fifth in the series generated from this study, focuses on the dietary intake patterns and weight status of children during the fourth year of life. The report also examines families' WIC experiences and their perceptions of the program's impact.

Resource | Research, Analysis & Background | Assessing/Improving Operations

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2018

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2018 summarizes the demographic characteristics of participants nationwide in April 2018. It includes information on participant income and nutrition risk characteristics, estimates breastfeeding initiation rates for WIC infants, and describes WIC members of migrant farm-worker families.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

Child Nutrition Program Operations Study II, School Year 2015-2016

The Child Nutrition Program Operations Study II (CN-OPS II) is a multiyear study that provides FNS with information on current state agency and school food authority policies, practices, and needs related to school nutrition service operations, financial management, meal counting, training and professional standards, food service equipment, and technology. 

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

National- and State-Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and WIC Program Reach in 2017

This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2017 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category.

The report also provides estimates by region, state, U.S. territory, and race and ethnicity

Resource | Research | Participation Rates

Trends in SNAP Participation Rates: FY 2010-2017

Trends in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates: Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2017 is the latest in a series on SNAP participation rates, which estimate the proportion of people eligible for benefits under Federal income and asset rules who actually participate in the program. This report presents rates for fiscal year (FY) 2017, comparing them to rates for FYs 2010 through 2016. Overall, the program served 84 percent of all eligible individuals in 2017, up 12 points from 2010. Most of this increase occurred between 2010 and 2012; in more recent years, the participation rate has been fairly stable.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

Scanner Capability Assessment of SNAP-Authorized Small Retailers

This study provides current information on adoption of scanning technology among small SNAP-authorized retailers to assess readiness for meeting the Farm Bill requirement, barriers and benefits to adopting scanning technologies, and costs for nonadopting retailers to comply with this requirement.