Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study 2: Fourth Year Report

The WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (WIC ITFPS-2), also known as the “Feeding My Baby" Study, is the only national study to capture data on caregivers and their children over the first 6 years of the child's life regardless of their continued participation in WIC. Overall, the study examines child-feeding practices, associations between WIC services and those practices, and the health and nutrition outcomes of children who received WIC around birth. This report, the fifth in the series generated from this study, focuses on the dietary intake patterns and weight status of children during the fourth year of life. The report also examines families' WIC experiences and their perceptions of the program's impact.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice

With support from the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine) convened an expert committee to review and assess the nutritional status and food and nutritional needs of the WIC-eligible population and provide recommendations based on its review and grounded in the most recently available science. The committee produced three reports as part of this task. This third and final report, in which the committee provides its final analyses, recommendations, and the supporting rationale, is available for download from the National Academy of Sciences.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Nutrient and Food Group Analysis of USDA Foods in Five of its Food and Nutrition Programs - 2014

This study updates a 2009 analysis of the nutrient and food group content of the USDA Foods offered and delivered through Federal nutrition assistance programs. It examines the Child and Adult Care Feeding Program (CACFP), the Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP), the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR), and The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in school year (SY) 2013-2014. The study also estimated the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores under the HEI-2010 and the HEI-2005 scoring systems for each program’s benefits.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Diet Quality of Young American Children by WIC Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008

This report uses data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrient intakes, food choices, and diet quality of young children who are WIC participants, income-eligible nonparticipants, and higher income participants.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Diet Quality of Americans by SNAP Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2010

This report uses data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrient intakes, food choices, and diet quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants, compared with income-eligible nonparticipants and higher-income nonparticipants.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
WIC Food Package Cost Report, FY 2010

This report estimates the average monthly food costs for each of 5 WIC participant subgroups and estimates total dollars spent on 17 major categories of WIC-eligible foods in FY 2010. The participant and food level costs in this report are USDA’s first estimates since implementation of the 2009 WIC food package changes.

Resource | Research | Breastfeeding
Evaluation of the Birth Month Breastfeeding Changes to the WIC Food Packages

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has been providing nutritious foods, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and health referral services to low-income mothers and their children for over 30 years. In 2006 the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to review the WIC food packages. The IOM proposed major changes to improve nutrition and encourage breastfeeding but also expressed the concern that changes related to partial breastfeeding may have unintended consequences. The IOM recommended that FNS conduct an impact study evaluating the birth month breastfeeding changes to the WIC food packages. This study responds to that recommendation.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Estimated Retail Value of the Average FDPIR Food Package as Delivered in Fiscal Year 2009

This report estimates the retail value of the average Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) food package delivered to FDPIR participants in fiscal year (FY) 2009. The estimated retail value
of the average FDPIR food package as delivered in FY 2009 was $78.44 per month per FDPIR participant. The report’s retail price estimate probably understates the true retail value of the FDPIR food package
because the cost of food from retailers located on or near Indian reservations is likely above national average retail food costs. The average SNAP benefit per person in FY 2009 was $125.31 per month.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
WIC Food Packages Policy Options

This study describes some of the choices state agencies made as they exercised the flexibility offered during the implementation and describes the resulting food packages.

Resource | Research | Food/Nutrient Analysis
Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

This study uses the most recent data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the diets of children who received Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits. The report compares the diets of WIC-participant children to the diets of income-eligible nonparticipant children and higher income children who were not eligible for WIC benefits. The study was not designed to measure or attribute an effect of WIC participation on diet quality, individual food choices, or health outcomes. It should be noted that in December 2007, USDA modified the content of the WIC food packages consistent with recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. This study examines the diets of children prior to implementation of the changes and will serve as a reference for comparison with future studies conducted after adoption of the new food packages.