Resource | Research, Analysis & Background | Demonstrations
Evaluation of Alternatives to Improve Elderly Access to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

This report examined some of the key food and financial challenges, as well as factors that influence SNAP participation choices, among elderly people. It also assessed how States implemented interventions designed to improve elderly access to SNAP, and their impacts.

Resource | Research | Program Access
Calculating the SNAP Program Access Index: A Step-By-Step Guide

The Program Access Index (PAI) is one of the measures FNS uses to reward states for high performance in the administration of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Performance awards were authorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (also known as the 2002 Farm Bill). The PAI is designed to indicate the degree to which low-income people have access to SNAP benefits. The purpose of this step-by-step guide is to describe the calculation of the Program Access Index (PAI) in detail. It includes all of the data, adjustments, and calculations used in determining the PAI for every state.

Resource | Research | Payment Accuracy and Program Integrity
Feasibility of Revising the SNAP Quality Control Review Process

FNS uses a two-tier system to measure errors in eligibility and benefit determination for SNAP. This feasibility study identifies all processes and components that would be required for a one-tier federal SNAP QC system, including the procedural, staffing, and organizational changes and the technological and data-sharing infrastructures.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics
Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2018

This report, the latest in an annual series dating back to 1976, provides information about the demographic and economic circumstances of SNAP households. Using a sample of SNAP Quality Control (QC) data that is representative at both the state and national level, this report summarizes the characteristics of households and individuals who participated in SNAP in fiscal year (FY) 2018.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Trends in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates: Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2017

Trends in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates: Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2017 is the latest in a series on SNAP participation rates, which estimate the proportion of people eligible for benefits under Federal income and asset rules who actually participate in the program. This report presents rates for fiscal year (FY) 2017, comparing them to rates for FYs 2010 through 2016. Overall, the program served 84 percent of all eligible individuals in 2017, up 12 points from 2010. Most of this increase occurred between 2010 and 2012; in more recent years, the participation rate has been fairly stable.

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations
Scanner Capability Assessment of SNAP-Authorized Small Retailers

This study provides current information on adoption of scanning technology among small SNAP-authorized retailers to assess readiness for meeting the Farm Bill requirement, barriers and benefits to adopting scanning technologies, and costs for nonadopting retailers to comply with this requirement.

Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost
Exploring the Causes of State Variation in SNAP Administrative Costs

The Federal Government fully funds SNAP benefits, but FNS and state agencies share administrative expenses, with each paying about 50 percent. State administrative costs per case varies widely by state. This study explores a number of factors, including state economic conditions, SNAP caseload characteristics, state SNAP policies, to try to explain the variation by state.

Resource | Research | General/Other
An Estimate of Potential Identity Theft In SNAP In Two States

This exploratory study estimated the extent to which potential identity theft was used to obtain Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits in Florida and Missouri during a 12-month period (June 2016 to May 2017). The prevalence of potential identity theft was estimated from examining the SNAP caseload data for cases with data discrepancies requiring referral to the state SNAP agency for further investigation. Because identity theft can be truly determined only after a detailed fraud investigation is conducted, the study estimates are to be considered potential identity theft rather than true identity theft.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations
The Evaluation of Food Insecurity Nutrition Incentives Interim Report

The Food Insecurity Nutrition Incentive (FINI) grant program provided $100 million to fund and evaluate projects that were intended to increase fruit and vegetable purchases among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants by providing incentives at the point of purchase. Grants were awarded in Fiscal Years (FYs) 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 to State and local governmental entities and nonprofit organizations. An independent evaluation measured the impact of FINI on two primary outcomes, increasing fruit and vegetable (1) expenditures and (2) consumption among SNAP households, and on several secondary outcomes. The pilot projects are not included in the evaluation. This report presents the results of the process evaluation and outcome evaluation through September 2017.

Resource | Research | Participation Rates
Reaching Those in Need: Estimates of State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in FY 2016

This report – part of an annual series – presents estimates, by state, of the percentage of eligible persons and working poor individuals who participated in SNAP during an average month in fiscal year (FY) 2016 and in the two previous fiscal years.

Nationally, the SNAP participation rate among all eligible persons was 85 percent in FY 2016. The participation rate for eligible working poor individuals was significantly lower, at 75 percent. Participation rates for all eligible persons varied from state to state, ranging from a low of 56 percent to a high of 100 percent. Participation rate estimates for the working poor also varied widely across states. In no state was the rate for working poor people higher than the rate for all eligible people.