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Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost

WIC Food Cost-Containment Practices Study

The WIC Food Cost-Containment Practices Study describes the voluntarily approaches state agencies used in 2018 to reduce food costs when selecting and authorizing WIC foods. This study is the second of its kind; the first was conducted by the USDA Economic Research Service in 2003. This report examines how six types of food cost-containment practices are associated with food costs and WIC participant satisfaction, benefit redemption, and food consumption in 12 state agencies. 

Resource | Research | Food Security

ERS - Household Food Security in the United States in 2021

This report presents statistics from the survey that cover household food security, food expenditures, and use of federal nutrition assistance programs in 2021.

Resource | Research | Food Security

USDA Nutrition Education Coordination Report to Congress, FY 2021

USDA's nutrition assistance programs touch the lives of one in four American consumers annually and the nutrition education efforts associated with select programs offer a powerful opportunity to promote food security and improve dietary quality among eligible individuals and families.

Resource | Research | Benefit Content/Cost

WIC Vendor Management Study: 2015 EBT Pilot

The WIC Vendor Management Study: 2015 Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) Pilot examined compliance with program requirements and rates of violations among WIC EBT vendors in 2015 and tested a method to identify and measure errors that contribute to improper payments in an EBT environment.

Resource | Research | Breastfeeding

WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study 2 (ITFPS-2): Fifth Year Report

The WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study 2 (WIC ITFPS-2)/ “Feeding My Baby” Study  is the only national study to capture data on caregivers and their children over the first 5 years of the child’s life after enrollment in WIC, regardless of their continued participation in the program. This report focuses on the dietary intake patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status of children during the fifth year of life. The report also examines associations between WIC participation and key diet and health-related outcomes.

Resource | Research | Impacts/Evaluations

Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC

The U.S. Department for Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's report “Maternal and Child Health Outcomes Associated with WIC reviews evidence on whether participation in WIC is associated with nutrition and health outcomes for women and children.

Resource | Policy | General/Other

Voluntary Recall of Certain Abbott Powder Formulas, including Similac, Alimentum and EleCare

FNS is committed to providing WIC participants with access to a variety of safe and healthy foods, including infant formula, and strongly encourages WIC state agencies to take expedient action to ensure that WIC participants can exchange recalled product on hand, and can use WIC benefits in their EBT balance or on paper WIC food instruments to purchase product that has not been recalled

Resource | Research | Assessing/Improving Operations

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2020 - Charts

Since 1988, FNS has produced biennial reports on WIC participant and program characteristics for use in program monitoring and managing WIC information needs. The PC 2020 report summarizes demographic, income and health-related characteristics and behaviors of participants certified to receive WIC benefits in April 2020.

Resource | Research | General/Other

National and State Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and Program Reach in 2019

This report, the latest in a series of annual reports on WIC eligibility, presents 2019 national and state estimates of the number of people eligible for WIC benefits and the percents of the eligible population and the US population covered by the program, including estimates by participant category. The report also provides estimates by region, state, U.S. territory and race and ethnicity.

In March 2022, the report volumes were updated with improved national-level standard errors and margins of errors in some report and appendix tables. None of the point estimates for the number of eligible individuals or coverage rates required revision; only some standard errors and margins of error were revised.

Resource | Research | Participation Characteristics

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2020

Since 1988, FNS has produced biennial reports on WIC participant and program characteristics (PC) for use in program monitoring and managing WIC information needs. The PC 2020 report summarizes demographic, income and health-related characteristics and behaviors of participants certified to receive WIC benefits in April 2020. As a response to COVID-19, the PC 2020 report also compares participant and program characteristics between participants certified to receive benefits in April 2020 and those certified to receive benefits in November 2020 in nine select state agencies.