The Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) provides supplemental foods to low-income households living on or near Indian reservations. While recognizing a need for assistance among American Indians, Congress was concerned that this need may not be adequately addressed by the Food Stamp Program, the largest and most widely available food assistance program in the United States. The primary concern was that the remote location of many reservations may make it difficult for many American Indians to participate in the Food Stamp Program because they live some distance from a food stamp office and food stores are scarce or far away. Thus, FDPIR represents an alternative to the Food Stamp Program for residents of Indian reservations. This study presents the first nationally representative profiles of FDPIR participant and program characteristics, and the food-assistance needs and preferences among this particular target population. This executive summary provides a brief historical perspective on the program, describes the objectives and methodology of the evaluation, and summarizes the major finding.